Glossary of Terms


Abbasid   [uh bas id, ab uh sid] Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 c.e. (p. 295)

Abbas the Great   Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology (p. 623)

Abdallahi, Khalifa   [uh dool ä hEE] Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defeated by British General Kitchener in 1598. (p. 793)

Abduh, Muhammad   Disciple of al-Afghani; Muslim thinker at end of 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology, recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry. (p. 791)

Abdul Hamid   Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908. (p. 787)

Abelard, Peter   Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine. (p. 385)

absolute monarchy   Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies. (p. 540)

Adena culture   First of the mound-building cultures; originating in southern Ohio; lasted until 700 c.e. in some regions. (p. 211)

Aeschylus   Greek writer of tragedies. (p. 140)

African National Congress   Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until the 1990s declared illegal in South Africa. (p. 1015)

Afrikaner National party   Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid. (p. 986)

agrarian revolution   Occurred between 8000 and 5000 b.c.e.; transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture. (p. 16)

Akbar   Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India. (p. 628)

Akhenaton   [äk nät n, ä kuh-] Egyptian pharaoh of the New Kingdom; attempted to establish a one-god religion, replacing the traditional Egyptian pantheon of gods. (p. 39)

al-Afghani   Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry. (p. 791)

al-Ghazali   Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Quranic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama. (p. 315)

al-Mahdi   [al- dEE] Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'is to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession. (p. 306)

al-Rashid   [al-rä shEEd] Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession. (p. 307)

Alexander the Great   Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 b.c.e.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures. (p. 134)

Alexandria, Egypt   One of many cities of that name founded by Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies. (p. 134)

Ali   Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'is. (p. 285)

Ali, Muhammad   Won power struggle in Egypt following fall of Mamluks; established mastery of all of Egypt by 1811; introduced effective army based on Western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms; by 1830s was able to challenge Ottoman government in Constantinople; died in 1848. (p. 791)

ali'i   [ä lEE, ä luh EE] High chiefs of Hawaiian society who claimed descent from the gods and rested their claims on their ability to recite in great detail their lineages. (p. 246)

Allah   Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam. (p.277)

Allende, Salvador:   yAHn dAY, ä yen dEE] President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the United States. (p. 947)

Alliance for Progress   Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal of direct intervention. (p. 953)

Almohadis   [äl mO hädEEz] A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Africa. (p. 334)

Almoravids   [al muh räv udz] A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna and westward into Spain. (p. 334)

alpacas   Along with llamas, domesticated animals of the Americas; basis for only form of nomadic pastoralism in the New World until European importation of larger animals in 15th century c.e. (p. 216)

Álvares Cabral, Pedro   Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil. (p. 597)

Amaru, Tupac   Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution. (p. 606)

Amaterasu   [ä mä te sU] Sun goddess of the Shinto religion. (p. 242)

American Civil War   Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South. (p. 712)

American exceptionalism   Historical argument that the development of the United States was largely distinctive; contact with Western Europe was incidental to the larger development of the United States on its own terms. (p. 721)

American Revolution   Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America. (p. 699)

amigos del país   [uh mEE gOs, ä mEE-, del päEEs] Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform. (p. 602)

anarchists   Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881. (p. 815)

Anasazi   "The ancient ones"; culture located in southwestern United States; flourished from 200 to 1200 c.e.; featured large multistory adobe and stone buildings built in protected canyons or cliffs. (p. 212)

Anglican church   Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death. (p. 526)

animism   A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions. (p. 33)

Anschluss   Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations. (p. 852)

Antigonids   One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Macedonia. (p. 146)

apartheid   Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically. (p. 1015)

appeasement   Policy of Neville Chamberlain, British prime minister who hoped to preserve peace in the face of German aggression; particularly applied to Munich Conference agreements; failed when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. (p. 853)

Aquinas, Thomas   Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God. (p. 386)

Aquino, Corazon   First president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s; Aquino, whose husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime, was one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator. (p. 1002)

arabic numerals   Actually an Indian system of numerical notation transported by Arabs to West; central to two scientific revolutions. (p. 302)

Aragon   Along with Castile, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda. (p. 507)

Archaic cultures   Hunting-and-gathering groups dispersed over the American continents by 9000 b.c.e. (p. 201)

Arevalo, Juan José   Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of Socialist reforms including land reform; Nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company. (p. 944)

Argentine Republic   Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists. (p. 758)

Aristophanes   [ar uh stof uh nEEz] Greek writer of the comedies; author of The Frogs. (p. 139)

Aristotle   Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world. (p.138)

Arthashastra   [är thä shäs trä] Political treatise written during reign of Chandragupta Maurya; advocated use of spies and assassins, bribery, and scientific forms of warfare. (p. 184)

Aryans   Indo-European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society. (p. 57)

Asante Empire   [uh san tEE, uh sän] Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650. (p. 642)

asantehene   [un san tAY hAY nAY] Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool. (p. 647)

Ashikaga, Takuaji   [ä shEE kä gä tä kwä ji] Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336–1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino. (p. 458)

Ashoka   [uh sO kuh] Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire. (p. 184)

Asian sea trading network   Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; and China based on paper, porcelain, and silks. (p. 666)

Atlantic Charter of 1941   World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization. (p. 978)

Atlantic colonies   British colonies in North America; originally restricted to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean from New England to Georgia. (p. 555)

audiencia   Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates. (p. 596)

Augustine (Saint) 354–430 c.e.   Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately Bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination. (p. 266)

Augustus Caesar   Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome. (p. 156)

Aurangzeb   [ôr uhng zeb] Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707. (p. 631)

Austronesian   Family of 30 related languages found in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia; people of this linguistic group migrated throughout Pacific. (p. 244)

Axum   Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Meroe in first century c.e.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity. (pp.45, 231)

ayan   [ä yän] The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule. (p. 298)

ayllus   [äy zhoos] Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor. (p. 219)

Aztecs   The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after fall of Toltecs to penetrate into the sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco. (p. 211)



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